Universe is expanding. The nature of all things is permanent movement, the movement generates transformation. The microcosm and the macrocosm are developed and transformed in these characteristics.
In China since time immemorial, man has been considered part of this universal system: product is also of "cosmic forces". The development of state health and human disease are the result of a state of balance or imbalance of these forces. "(1)
To understand this system of thought, which is the basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), it is essential to know certain concepts which, strictly speaking, part of a philosophical system on which rests the entire social and cultural life of China.
Although widely known in the West, some of these concepts -- thousands - such as "energy" or "Yin and Yang" and even a method such as acupuncture, empirical branch of traditional Chinese medicine, are still surrounded by a halo of mystery which often tends to confuse theory and practice myths and legends.
One of the older works that exist today in China, Huang di Neijing, also known as "The first Canon of the Yellow Emperor," focuses on the major medical advances and the age and establishes the basis for the theoretical system of TCM. In this classic relatively systematic and complete, we read: "Man's life is the result of the concentration of energy. If the energy is concentrated, there is life, if the energy is scattered, is death. " (2)
Here, indeed, the idea of energy refers to the empirical observations of the nineteenth century concluded that although energy can be converted can not be created nor destroyed, that the idea of energy as the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Rather, the energy or qi, in traditional Chinese medicine, is the structural basis of the material universe, its essence. This concept is used to explain each element of the universe and the events in the event.
Thus, the generation of things and their changes as well as structuring and transformation of the health-disease process, are but manifestations of the activity of energy or Qi. Moreover, all things in the universe are the result of the movements and changes of Qi.
The body receives energy
different names, and they depend on the various activities carried out in areas such as production, distribution, function, etc..
Energy andalusia after birth is known as Ancestral Energy (original or "qi yuan "). Comes from the union mainly Jing-egg and sperm) and "treasures" or stored in the kidneys.
The energy that is produced after birth is known as purchased energy. Comes from the food and air and "treasures" in the chest and stomach.
Defensive Energy ( "wei qi"), protects the body from invasion by exogenous pathogenic factors and treasures to the surface the skin. Energy (qi), blood (xue) and body fluids make up this system.
Another manifestation of the energy itself is the Qi of Zang-Fu organs (Zang organs-solid, Fu:-hollow viscera) , which relates to the characteristics of each body and each viscus.
The Yin and Yang
From the perspective
Chinese cosmogony, and based on the concept of energy, settle two "forces" governed by the principle of opposition and complementarity: the Yin and Yang. Chinese philosophy has developed and widespread use of these terms to all of nature showing that the principle of complementary opposites-is everywhere and is in some way the source of all manifestations. Furthermore, the same principle contains, in varying proportions, the Ying and Yang, one of which stands out or stands out, if only temporarily, leading to the dominance of the opposite.
All variables in the relationship between Yin and yang are used in traditional Chinese medicine to explain, and so specifies, the physiology and pathology of the human body and also to guide the diagnosis and treatment in clinical work. (3)
The terms Yin and Yang were first mentioned in the Book of Changes (4) and means, literally, the slope (the mountain) to provide shade (Yin) and the slope gives the sun (Yang) In addition to characterizing the dark shadow, Yin involves passive and static rioja rioja female while Yang, the light, is also active, dynamic and rioja rioja male.
The discussion about whether Yin and Yang are two different energies and two different states of the same energy must give way, from a scientific point of view, the recognition of its prevalence in nature and the body healthy and sick. The opposition Yin - Yang is governed by the principle of complementarity and dialectical is not based on a dualistic conception. Rather, the theoretical framework of ERM refers to the unity of the dual-light shade, heating, contraction-expansion. There is no shadow without light, there is no light cast shadows. There are more or less light, more or less shade. Various approaches applicable to the process observed between the prevalence of light or darkness, between the balance and imbalance between health status and the disease and its consequences in every human being constitute the empirical corpus of TCM.
Acupuncture (from the Latin acus, needle, and puncture, twinge), disseminated to the West by Jesuit missionaries who visited China in the seventeenth century and described the method, is only part of it, according to its name original, should be called Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Practiced since ancient times and simple implementation, this therapeutic procedure is the introduction of metal needles or caloric stimulation of certain points on the skin. (intro). Its simplicity, however, comes from a large logical structure of a building whose theoretical and practical parts attached to each other as a mechanism of high precision.
Points are points that are stimulated Chinese, whose precise location is determined as throughout the skin and are linked together via lines: Meridian (Chings).
Lines are in the "map" Chinese vessels drivers of energy (QI), the equivalent of "nodes" located in different parts of the ducts. This map graphically symmetrical meridians 12 (6 Yin Yang and 6) where the energy that circulates in turn is produced by 5 and 5 visceral organs whose functions have been added 2 to achieve perfect symmetry in the number 12. The viscera are
Yang; organs are Yin.
The first, responsible for transforming food, are the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gallbladder and bladder.
The sixth function added to those of the viscera is called Triple 5 heating or SANJIAO SHAOYAN expression of triple cardiopulmonary function, gastrointestinal and genitourinary. Similarly, the five Yin organs, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, liver, has been added sixth feature, Yin: the call-flow or sexuality JUEYIN Pericardium channel of hand. It is a holistic function that can not be understood only in relation to the Triple Reheating because it is the pole outside, Yang, and sexuality-movement is internal, Yin.
When the state of the body is healthy, these two forces, which have their opposite within itself: contains a Yin and Yang Yin-Yang contains remain in balance. Health, to the MTC, is a sign of energy balance. For Yin and Yang represent aspects of objects and opponents, are not absolute but relative. This opposition and interconnection of things is inexhaustible in nature. A graphic that represents this concept is the figure Tai Chi or Culmination Supreme, where the Yin-Yang dialectic opposition is drawn through the 2 symmetrical shapes of different colors (black and white) bounded by a wavy line and arranged within a circle that includes, each, a small circle of the opposite color.
traditional Chinese medicine, there are two causes of disease: a major cause, the internal body, and a secondary cause external to it. The first factor is called antipatógeno (Zhengqi) and refers to the human body's ability to resist the action of various kinds of pathogens and maintain the relative balance within the body and between it and the outside world. The second, also called pathogens (Xieqi) refers to those external actors who tend to break on any of the internal equilibrium of the body. In a simple way, health depends on the reaction capacity to take the body to deal with external actors to it. The disease then occurs when the factor antipatógeno, Zhengqi is weak to fight, leaving the field open to action pathogenic Xieqi, causing imbalances in the body (the imbalance between Yin and Yang). This is why the internal cause is considered a factor in the MTC core in the onset of the disease while the external cause is a conditional. The external cause acts through the internal cause (5), if you enter and exerts its action in the body is because the factor can not oppose antipatógeno reaction to it. This reason is also the focus of treatment for MTC, which puts emphasis on the regulation and protection Zhengqi or, what is the same, to regulate and strengthen the defense mechanisms of the human body. < BR> Due to the characteristics of its etiology, MTC related diseases with changes in climate. These changes, beyond the adaptability of the individual, are considered pathogenic factors in various disorders and categorize clinical manifestations that reflect the abnormality or inconsistency between the factors Zhengqi and Xieqi. Pathogenic factors, therefore, also imply pathology.
However, since the pathology of the disease is essential to guide treatment, the pathogens should be investigated in relation to its nature and its real significance, considering and explore the links between them and the organ dysfunction. To identify the pathogenic factors must be added the thorough observation of the preponderance of decay or disease and the factors in their struggle antipatógeno action and reaction. And, for example, through normal or abnormal functioning of the Zang-Fu organs, can not only know the cause of the disease but also causes changes in the body, which allows based on the specific symptoms that identify the principles of treatment.
In summary form, the pathogens are classified into three groups: 1) six factors, 2) seven emotional factors, and 3) factors. The six factors are wind, cold, summer heat, dampness, dryness and heat (warmth). The seven emotional factors related to mental activities linked to the emotions: joy, anger, anxiety, meditation, sorrow, fear and terror. Contributing factors, finally, are inadequate food, excessive work or rest, trauma, blood stasis and phlegm-humor (Tanyin) (6)
a simple appeal to common sense can check the Yin-Yang concept in nature, from the perspective of pathophysiology may warn identical dialectic vital functions. Lungs: inspiration-exhalation; heart systole-diastole, small and large intestines: evacuating, filling, or expansion and contraction, Yin-Yang.
Just as the law governing the functional mechanism, also respond to her chemical mediators, which precede the mechanical effect: the adrenaline and noradrenaline on the one hand, and acetylcholine, on the other properties are opposite compared to heart rate. Following the same logic, there exists today in the enzyme system which lacks a counterpart enzyme, the enzyme inhibitor. Any cellular biochemistry operates this way. And so does the autonomic nervous system, which shows a clear example of functional antithesis between sympathetic and parasympathetic, which dominates the first day and the second overnight.
The comparative action of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems result of studying the functional antithesis bodies where the action of neurovegetative is well known, shows a new element of opposition. The sympathetic system (Yang) Yin active organs (heart, lungs, circulation) and inhibits the activity of the Yang organs (stomach, small and large intestines, bladder). The parasympathetic (Yin), for its part, acts to the contrary: it inhibits the body and activates the Ying Yang.
Antithetical In the operation of both systems as well as in other examples of antithesis in life is the concept of Yin and Yang also applies to the classification of bodies.
Embryological theory and function of the nervous system
La Fuye (1890-1961), founder of the Societe Francaise d'Acupuncture, who proposed a theory based on the embryological fact that the ectodermal layer of the embryo originates from a simultaneous system and skin nervous, and Professor at Uppsala University, Svann Horstädius, who in his book "The Neural Crest" refers to the formation of the spinal cord, nervous system and skin have provided theoretical west, the thousands years of theory and practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It should be noted here that although many texts from antiquity in the art, the delay in translation and dissemination remained low post, are the main causes of this lack of theoretical medical system.
For example, the formulation of the theory of Horstädius:
"If, indeed, in the early stages of formation of the human egg, the point of the ectoderm (in nine months that will become the skin and nervous system), is in intimate relation to the point of endoderm (which, in nine months, will become the organ, the stomach, for example) may be thought that, during the evolution of the egg, then the human embryo, until the final child, and of man to his death, the same intimate relations exist between the same organ (stomach) and skin, through the nervous system, with the difference that the starting point ectodermal be developed in a line skin, which may just explain the "Ching" (meridian) of the stomach. And so for the other points (...)".< BR> A stimulus provokes reactions in the body of high complexity. Thus, physiological patterns of the spinal reflex arc, involving only two neurons (one sensory and motor), are limited to the interest of the MTC. Simplify the reflex arc left out, so to say, the wealth of existing connections in both the horizontal and vertical stages in sensory and motor connections and neurovegetative. Wealth that it is possible to see if it applies the theory of neuron Ramón y Cajal, in which the neural synapses play a major role by enabling the formation and destruction of connections and reflex arcs within an infinite variety of possibilities.
The theoretical possibilities of the nervous system were also explored by the anthropologist from the University of Hamburg, W. Schidt based on histological work undertaken by several researchers. According to Dr. Stöhr, the entire nervous system is a "syncytium" neuroplasmático, ie a closed network of steaks nerve cells interposed with "and, moreover, has also been demonstrated that constitute the driver neurofibrillas within the neuroplasma and those who, far from being fixed formations, essentially changing: change and are influenced by the differences in potential of the tissues innervated, while serving the function of driving and balancing the differences in potential. This theory has been built based on the theory of "Synneurona" according to which the entire nervous system of the animal body has a closed ring neurofibrillas linked to each other by a phenomenon similar to the electric induction, the structure changes continuously.
It is important to emphasize this theory stems from the fact that the names of sympathetic or parasympathetic, to cite a specific example, are not applicable to nerves to links or nodes, but they are, and here is the point, changing . Each tissue is linked to the sympathetic or parasympathetic synneurona the body core. What changed, according to the functions, refer to the predominance of one or another link. Thus, for direct links to the operative acupuncture and words of Dr. Bachmann (7), all-healing and repair process in the body is produced by transposition of a disturbance synnéuricas "(...).
Mechanisms of action of acupuncture
It is vital to consider the predominant influence exercised by the nervous system in pathological processes to understand that acupuncture is effective in the cure of diseases over thousands of years. On the empirical basis of the stimulus produced by acupuncture needle or the application of localized heat or moxa on specific points of the human body and the organic reactions that generate these stimuli are recorded Acupuncture and Moxibustion, methods of treating internal diseases from the outside "(8) continue to improve the pace of new technologies that provide greater electrical potential
back embryological theory and according to the theory of Horstädius: "(...) a puncture on one of the points of these lines (meridians) affect the body as it specifically (and, consequently, on the organ function) with which this line was originally linked.
energy circulates through the body through the 12 meridians that correspond the 5 Yin organs, the organs Yang 5 and 2 functions called Triple overheat and Circulation-sexuality. The correspondence between internal organs and meridians is given by the vessel side (ligámenes to each other), in charge of the connection between the two. Secondary vessels are key to understanding the relationship between the peripheral circulation of energy and functioning of organs and to account for the action mechanism of acupuncture. Through the "puncture" on certain points, it exerts an influence on energy, any change in the flow of energy is transmitted to the bodies with which they are connected, what is known as the viscera-cutaneous reflex.
Addition procedure for differentiating pathological conditions that must be done according to the theory of TCM, acupuncture treatment is based on the following principles: the symptoms spread to "excess" and Toning symptoms "defect." In order for the application of the principles is appropriate, it is necessary to know the path to perfection of the meridians, the distribution of the Chinese and the directions for each part of this system.
In terms the action itself of acupuncture include, from the standpoint of neurophysiology and the relationship between the nervous system and blood circulation, some of the most important functions of the mechanism:
. Reflexógena has an activity on the internal organs.
2. Produce a "strengthening" of the central nervous system and acts on the functional disorders.
3. It has a normalizing influence on the reticular formation of the brain and on the tone and reactivity of all the vegetative nervous system, which is directly related to the normalization of all functions of the body.
4. Operation acts on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal raising the body's defenses.
So here a brief description of the basic principles of acupuncture, therapeutic procedure whose effectiveness in the cure of disease is subject to the prior completion of a correct diagnosis. TCM used since antiquity a diagnostic methodology based on theoretical interrelated (pillars of the method) including the Theory of Yin and Yang Theory of 5 Elements, the differentiation of syndromes, the question (whether the patient feels cold or heat, if you have fever or chills; on appetite and taste, on the urine and feces, on pain), visual inspection (of expression, color, Glosodiagnosis, etc.), the auscultation and palpation (palpation and abdominal Pulsología, among others). (9)
Once determined the meridian or the organ affected, the doctor trained in traditional Chinese medicine, should establish the primary and secondary symptoms, the mechanism of disease development and the state (acute or chronic) of patient to decide which of the technical procedures for implementing the treatment (acupuncture, moxibustion and so on). Up to this decision after considering various theoretical and methodological aspects that are based on the principles of opposition and complementarity, the internal connections that regulate body functions and the latter with the external environment in an integrative vision cosmogony, where everything has its place and is in turn a whole.
between day and night, between Yin and Yang, between man and the universe, there are interactions, encounters that allow a complementary approach to health.
. Fundamentals of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tianjin College of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Goto College of Medical Arts and Sciences. Tianjin Science and Technology Translation and Publishing Corp., 1994.
2. G. Gonzalez, Roberto, Yan Jianhua, Chinese Traditional Medicine. Huang di Neijing. The first canon of the Yellow Emperor .-. Editorial Grijalbo, México. 1996.
3. Editions of the Shanghai Science and Technology, 1983, translated into Spanish and adapted by John Jaramillo and Min Ming, Fundamentals of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Tercer Mundo Editores, Colombia, 1989.
4. I Ching - The Book of Changes.
5. Editions of the Shanghai Science and Technology, 1983, translated into Spanish and adapted by John Jaramillo and Min Ming, Fundamentals of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tercer Mundo Editores, Colombia, 1989.
6. Spanish version of Zhang Jun and Zheng Jing, Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Issues in Foreign Language, Beijing, China, 1984, p. 32.
7. Bachmann, Gerhard: Die Akupuntur, eine Ordnungstherapie, Haug, Ulm-Donau, 1959.
Leitfaden der Akupunktur, Haug, Ulm-Donau, 1961.
(Quoted in Acupuncture. Theory and Practice. David J. Sussmann. Editorial Kier. 1987. p. 403)
8. Spanish version of Zhang Jun and Zheng Jing, Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Issues in Foreign Language, Beijing, China, 1984, p. 318.
9. Spanish version of Zhang Jun and Zheng Jing, Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Issues in Foreign Language, Beijing, China, 198, Page 41